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Clinical Gynecology

Clinical Gynecology


Polyps are neoplasms of epithelial origin, which in the vast majority of cases have a benign nature. In gynecology, two types of polyps are most often observed - on the cervix (cervical polyp) and on the uterine cavity (endometrial polyp).

The cervical polyp can be visualized during a routine gynecological examination with a speculum.


It originates from the lining of the cervical canal and often protrudes slightly forward from the external orifice of the cervix.


Usually, the polyp is small in dimensions, but it can reach several centimeters in individual cases .


Cervical polyps may clinically manifest with bleeding during intercourse. They usually grow during pregnancy and can cause genital bleeding.

In most cases, cervical polyps are easily removed during a gynecological examination without causing any discomfort.  The sample must be sent for histological examination.


The endometrial polyp originates from the lining (endometrium) of the uterine cavity. Its formation is usually associated with conditions associated with hyperestrogenemia (high levels of estrogen). Risk factors for its development are overweight, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, perimenopause, taking certain medications for the treatment of breast cancer (Tamoxifen), etc.


Endometrial polyps are clinically manifested by heavier menstrual cycles, spotting between two periods, vaginal bleeding during menopause, difficulty getting pregnant (infertility), etc.


The endometrial polyp is diagnosed most often in the first days after the end of the menstrual cycle by transvaginal ultrasound examination (ultrasound). In this way, the polyp is easily visualized in the uterine cavity. Its feeding blood vessel can be easily demonstrated by Doppler ultrasound.

Sonohysterography is another highly effective method for diagnosing endometrial polyps. With it, a thin catheter is introduced into the uterine cavity and it is filled with saline solution. The uterus is then scanned by transvaginal ultrasound. Excellent visualization of the polyp is obtained and its smooth surface is limited. This has great differential diagnostic value.

Once an endometrial polyp is diagnosed, it is possible to wait several menstrual cycles for a possible spontaneous loss of menstruation. Usually this does not take place and surgical treatment is resorted to. 


The gold standard in the removal of endometrial polyps remains hysteroscopy, which allows precise removal of the formation under direct visual control. The obtained sample must be sent for histological examination. 


Office hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive alternative method, in which the uterine cavity is entered through the cervix with a thin camera without the need for further expansion of the cervical canal. The main advantage of the method is that there is no need to introduce the patient to short-term intravenous anesthesia. Office hysteroscopy allows examination of the endometrial mucosa in real time and easy removal of the polyp. 


At MC MARKOVS we offer to all our patients the full range of tests related to the evaluation of the gynecological condition of the woman in case of suspected cervical or endometrial polyp. Examinations are carried out in a comfortable environment with quality medical equipment by highly qualified Ob/Gyne specialists. 


For more information, you can contact your doctor or call at MC MARKOVS.